Basic principles in doing physical exercises[1](Part 2)

“Principle 5: Regularity[1]

This principle means that when you have decided to run for three times a week, then do that commitment consistently! If the gap between your exercise days varies a lot, you will not largely benefit from your physical exercises. In other words, your physical exercise does not practically contribute in your fitness if not done consistently and regularly. Always remember that it is hard to develop fitness; however, it is very easy to lose it! Thus, the fitness that you have gained within a period of one month could be lost approximately in one week if you stopped exercising for that period[1]!

“Principle 6: Individuality”[1]

No individual is a complete replica of another. Each one is different from others. Hence, what you can afford to do—in terms of the intensity and frequency of a particular physical exercise—cannot be performed by, and imposed to, another. There are a lot of factors that will determine your capacity to do a particular exercise. Some factors that could affect such capacity are the following: sex, age, height, weight, genetic make-up, length of time that you have been having physical exercises, and many more[1]. Thus, if you see your friend to have an easier time doing a particular work-out, do not conclude that you can do it as well! You may injure yourself! What you need to do is listen to your body and find out what you can afford to do. Never use another individual as your benchmark! Your own self is your benchmark.

“Principle 7: Patience”[1]

Fitness is not achieved overnight! Neither is it lost overnight! Whatever is the outcome, you need weeks and months to achieve it—not days! From being sedentary, an adult person needs from eight to ten weeks to achieve fitness[1]! Hence, you cannot fast track the development of your fitness! You need time to achieve it! Most of all, you need patience to achieve it! If you lack patience, you will tend to hurry up your gym sessions even if your body is not ready to tackle it! If you insist, you might injure yourself!

“Principle 8: Moderation”[1]

Too much of anything is bad! Thus, excessive drinking, exercising, book writing, gardening under the sun, and other preoccupations are bad. You need to balance your habitual work which usually generates stress in you with physical exercises which could counteract its adverse effects[1].

“Principle 9: Reversibility”[1]

When you exercise regularly, you will achieve a certain degree of fitness. If for a reason you stop in some days to exercise, your fitness will be decreased to a certain extent. If you stop completely from exercising, all your fitness will slip away. To preserve your fitness, do not stop completely from exercising. Hence, use your fitness; otherwise, you will lose it[1]!

“Principle 10: Share the flowers”[1]

The earlier you decide to have regular physical exercises, the better it will be! It will be a hard decision because you really need to eke out time for it. However, the moment you have reached that decision to give yourself some exercises, it will be the beginning of wellness for yourself. While doing it, however, you must still have the time to smell flowers and appreciate the gift of time that is given to you. When you meet others, encourage them to do the same: to have regular physical exercises. When you do that, you are not only sharing your knowledge—you are sharing the flowers [1]!


Glover, Bob, Shepherd, Jack, and Glover, Shelly-lynn Florence. The Runner’s Handbook. New York: Penguin Books USA Inc., 1996.

Basic principles in doing physical exercises[1](Part 1)

“Principle 1: Overload Gently[1]

This principle means that you can increase the load of your physical exercises as you progress in your program; however, it should be done gradually. If you have running program, during the first week, the best that you can do is merely to walk for thirty minutes each day or every other day. On the second week, you can maintain the distance and frequency of your running, but this time you can walk alternately with running. Hence, you can walk for a total of 15 minutes and run for another 15 minutes.

There are three factors that will determine the load that you could give to yourself. These are frequency (how often), intensity (how fast), and time (how far). In increasing the load of your physical exercise, you need to alter just one of the factors. As much as possible, do not change more than one of the factors; otherwise, you will be confused as to whether you are increasing your load or not. In the example above, by shifting from total walking to alternating walking with running, in effect, you are only changing the intensity of the exercise. The frequency and time are not changed! They remain constant[1]!

“Principle 2: Progressive Stress – Train, Don’t Strain”[1]

As mentioned in the preceding section, introduction of additional load to your physical exercises should be done gradually. By the same token, when you train yourself to increase your stamina, you should also do it in progressive manner. You may not know it, but your body has great potential to progress in its ability to tackle whatever amount of load that you will introduce for as long as it is done in progressive manner. While it could gradually adapt to higher load, however, it has also limits; hence, do not strain your body.Once it has reached its highest load, stay there for some time. Do not increase it further. You may decrease a little bit, but not so much[1].

“Principle 3: Recovery – The Hard-Easy Method”[1]

There are times when you feel good and strong after doing a certain set of physical exercises. For this reason, you are sometimes tempted to do it again the following day! For your information, that is not the right way to do your physical exercises! Although you feel good, you need to rest the following day and allow your body to recover from the previous workout. There are no hard and fast rule on how many days you should rest before you do your physical exercises again! It depends on what your body can afford to do. Therefore, you need to listen to your body. If you need two days to rest, then do so. Another option that you can do is instead of totally resting on the recovery days, you can do light workouts[1].

“Principle 4: Specificity”

The set of physical exercises that you do depends on your goal. If you want to develop the muscles of your upper extremities, then you do push-ups. If you want to reduce the size of your bulging abdomen, then you do sit-up exercise. If you want to give more endurance to your heart and muscles, then you can do running! For a particular of goal, there is a set of muscles to be developed and strengthened; therefore, it requires a particular type of physical exercise.If you want to join in a running competition, then your training should revolve around running! You cannot do swimming as your daily physical exercise or focus of training, then you will compete in running! Your type of training depends on your goal[1]!


Glover, Bob, Shepherd, Jack, and Glover, Shelly-lynn Florence. The Runner’s Handbook. New York: Penguin Books USA Inc., 1996.

The components of wellness program[1](Part 3)

“Work to balance the stresses and joys of work, friends and family” [1]

When you workin a corporate setting or otherwise, generation of stress cannot be avoided. It will inevitably take place because there are deadlines to be met and—if you are a supervisor—there are subordinates to contend with. However, to balance out the adverse effects of stress, you need to generate joy and contentment in yourself and among your co-workers. This is easier said than done, but the secret of having joy in the midst of your workplace, family, and friends is to practice openness, transparency, and good communication skill.

In a corporate setting, joy and contentment could be generated and spread if you—yourself—have it. Being happy and contented is very “infectious”, especially if you are a supervisor! If your subordinates see that you are in good mood, they will, in turn, reciprocate what you feel, and they would show the same feeling in the workplace. If you are a very sensitive person—and this is expected of from a supervisor or manager—you should be able to immediately sense the general mood of your working environment. If, in spite of your move to disseminate joy and contentment in the workplace, there seems to be something preventing it, then find out what it is. More often than not, some of   your staff have personal or work-related problems, and you need to find out.

After pinpointing those who have problems, you need to talk to each one of them, and find out what is bothering them. This is now the start of “good communication”. Once you have understood their problem(s), then you can address them accordingly. When the problems are solved, then expectedly the mood in your workplace will turn for the best. Always remember that staff with problems—related with you as a supervisor or not—are problematic employees! Talk to them and help solve their problems.

Similar to the workplace, in your family and among your friends, there are a number of individuals to contend with. You can apply the same techniques of disseminating joys and resolving impediments to having it.

Engage in regular physical exercises

The role of regular physical exercises in the promotion of health has been fully established by scientific researches. There is no doubt about it. Thus, after consulting some experts or websites, you need to start having regular physical exercises. One of the experts that you need to consult is a medical doctor who will examine and tell if you are medically allowed to engage in regular physical exercises.Once he issued you with medical clearance to have gym exercises, then you can start.

Regular physical exercises are not only good for your muscles and bones; they are also needed in the conditioning of your heart. In addition, they relax your whole body and refresh your mood.

Take your meals on time

It was mentioned in the preceding that you need to take your regular meals. Such advice is not complete because in addition to having regular meals, you need to take them on time. There are times that you do not have the desire to take your meal yet because you are not hungry. You delay your meal until you really feel the so-called hunger pangs. This is not advisable. If the time for your regular eating has come, take your meal even if you are not so hungry. If you want you can reduce the amount of food that you will take; but still, take your meal on time and avoid starving yourself.



  1. Glover, Bob, Shepherd, Jack, and Glover, Shelly-lynn Florence. The Runner’s Handbook. New York: Penguin Books USA Inc., 1996.




The components of wellness program[1](Part 2)

“Do not abuse alcohol or drugs, and do not use tobacco in any form”[1]

The worst side effect of drinking too much alcohol is the development of liver cirrhosis. In this medical condition, there is extensive generation of fibers and scarring in your liver such that at certain point the flow of blood through it is partially or totally obstructed. When this takes place, the pressure of blood in the other blood vessels increases, leading to bleeding in the esophagus which could ultimately cause death.

Use of addictingdrugs could also cause a lot of undesirable effects on your health. Some of these adverse effects are feeling of drunkenness, talkativeness, blackouts, violent withdrawal symptoms, and even death due to overdose.The ten most commonly prescribed addicting drugs are the following: (1) Xanax (alprazolam), (2) Klonopin (clonazepam),(3)Valium (diazepam), (4) OxyContin (oxycodone), (5) Percocet (oxycodone), (6) Demerol (pethidine),(7) Darvocet (propoxyphene + acetaminophen), (8) Codein, (9) Adderal (amphetamine), and (10) Ritalin (methylphenidate)[2].Whenever a medical doctor prescribes you with a drug, try to know its nature, specifically its side effects.

The use of tobacco—in whatever form—is also discouraged because it has been scientifically established that it causes bronchogenic carcinoma in the lungs.

“Have regular medical and dental examinations”[1]

Annual medical examination is very important for you [Consult Powertec (127-133)]. It is meant to find out what are your ongoing and future medical problems; therefore, management could be started at the soonest time possible. By the same token, you need to have annual dental examination because a lot of medical problems arose from dental diseases. You may have kidney infection because you have been having dental problem!

“Work to develop an optimistic attitude and a sense of humor”[1]

Before starting on a project, have an optimistic frame of mind. You must believe that it will succeed because you know that you have planned for it, and have thought it out, so well. At the same time, practice the art of having a sense of humor because it could be your tool to fight out pressure in your daily life. Have laughter in your midst! Surely, you will be relaxed and refreshed to start doing again your work. Always remember what others say that laughter is the best medicine!

“Take minor upsets in stride”[1]

Whenever you are in a group—working in a corporate setting, for example—there is a great possibility that you will be upset by someone! Surely, your day is destroyed! However, the best approach to this situation is to take it in stride. You may try to explain your side, and point out what is wrong with what he did to you. But if the exchanges of justifications and excuses seem to have no end, it is better that you leave it as it is and end the discussion. Anger is at times cannot be avoided, but if done most of the time, it could increase your blood pressure. You may even die from it!

“Seek support from friends or family, or professional help, to deal with more serious stress”[1]

There are situations when the stress being generated is beyond your capability to solve.Do not hesitate to seek help from your friends and family members. They may have good ideas how to solve your problem. However, if they cannot help because your problem is so serious, then seek the assistance of a professional, such as a medical doctor or a psychologist. As soon as possible, solve your problem because if it is delayed, your condition might   deteriorate further.


  1. Glover, Bob, Shepherd, Jack, and Glover, Shelly-lynn Florence. The Runner’s Handbook. New York: Penguin Books USA Inc., 1996.

Krucik GT, Krans B. The most addictive prescription drugs on the market.

The components of wellness program[1](Part 1)

“Take frequent time outs—vacations, exercise breaks, regular family activities—to help overcome stress”[1]

Too much preoccupation with your work will generate boredom and lack of self-fulfillment in your life. At the end, stress is in your midst, and you will lose the energy and enthusiasm to work. To renew your zest in doing what you have been doing—and thus reducing stress—you need to break your routine, and look at new horizons, very much different from what you have been seeing day in and day out. These new horizons could be in the form of vacations, participation in sports, joining parties with friends and regular family members.

“Eat a balanced diet low in calories, fat, sugar, salt, and cholesterol but high in fiber and complex carbohydrates”[1]

It was emphasized in previous articles of Powertec that your diet should be low in calories so that you will not gain weight. In addition, it was also stressed that your diet should be low in fat, especially the saturated fat, so that you will avoid contracting diseases related to the heart and the blood vessels. Regarding intake of too much simple sugar, it should be avoided so that if you are prone to having diabetes mellitus, you will avoid having it, or—at the very least—you will delay its full development. Restriction of salt intake is encouraged so that you will not develop hypertension, and the same reason applies to restricting the intake of cholesterol-rich foods.

“Start each day with a healthy breakfast”[1]

When you take your breakfast, you are actually breaking your fasting because from the time you took your dinner up to the time you take it—your breakfast, the time difference is around twelve hours. Therefore, if you miss it, you will be depriving your body with the much needed nutrients, which were not supplied to it in the last twelve hours. Take your breakfast before you hit the road!

“Eat regular meals”[1]

You have three regular meals, and you need to take them on time. There are occasions, though, when you are so busy that you do not have the time to prepare or buy your meal(s). Your tendency will be to replace your breakfast or lunch with crackers or some drinks or some fast foods. Of course, you will feel full after eating or drinking them. However, it is not balanced. It may not contain the three food groups and the right number of calories that you need. Regular meals imply that they are balanced!

“Maintain a healthful weight”[1]

When you meet the phrase “healthful weight”, it is referring to the so-called ideal body weight (IBW). Your IBW depends on the following: (1) height, (2) sex, and (3) degree of daily activity. The higher you are, the greater will be your IBW. If you are male, your IBW is greater; and the more active you are in your daily chores, yourIBWneeds to be higher [Consult Powertec (20) on how to compute for yourIBW].

Your IBW is so important because it serves as an indexof predicting what diseases you will have if not corrected at the soonest time possible. If you actual weight is greater than your IBW, then you are prone to have hypertension, heart diseases, diabetes mellitus, joint and bone problems, and possible bone fractures.

“Sleep seven to eight hours a night”[1]

The positive role of adequate and solid sleep is undeniable. Surely, you have experienced lack of sleep, and you know very well the consequences! The following day, you cannot concentrate on your work because you feel drowsy! Until and after you have gotten the right number of hours of sleep, you will not be effective. Thus, do not miss your sleeping time!


  1. Glover, Bob, Shepherd, Jack, and Glover, Shelly-lynn Florence. The Runner’s Handbook. New York: Penguin Books USA Inc., 1996.



The seven poor health habits

Physical inactivity[1]
Scientific literatures have reported the beneficial effects of regular physical exercises on health. Aside from strengthening muscles and bones, they protect the heart from the so-called myocardial infarction (heart attack) because through physical exercises, the small blood vessels supplying the heart with blood are assured of being open most of the time, in addition to the development and opening of others, medically known as the collateral coronary arteries.
Again, scientific literatures are laden with findings that cigarette smoking is bad for your health. Aside from definitely causing cancer of the lungs, they induce the blood vessels to become inelastic and non-extensiblecontributing to, and causing, the development of hypertension. Based on most health statistics of different countries, hypertension as a cause of death ranks as one of the top ten.
Drinking too much alcohol[1]
Too much intake of alcohol will lead to the development of the so-called liver cirrhosis. In this disease, formation of fibers and scarring take place in your liver, making it ineffective to do itsvarious functions for your body, such as eliminating some waste products and forming new and useful substances. Damage of the liver is so critical because when it fails, other organs will subsequently fail.
Being overweight[1]
If your weight is more than your so-called ideal body weight, you will soon develop hypertension; and since hypertension has a lot of complications, you will soon have more medical problems than you have thought and imagined. Aside from diseases in the heart and blood vessels, if you are overweight, you will also have problems pertaining to your knees and other joints, aside from the fact that you will be prone to having bone fractures.
Eating between meals[1]
If you take light snacks in between meals, then that is okay and tolerable. However, if you take a lot of foods prior to, and after, your regular meals, then that spells a lot of difference because intake of large amount of foods could cause sudden rise of your sugar, cholesterol, or triglycerides in your blood depending on what type of foods you took in. Scientific literatures suggest that taking in small quantities of foods—even if more frequently than usual—is more healthy thantaking big amounts of foods even if taken at a lesser frequency.
Skipping breakfast[1]
When you take your dinner at 7:00 o’clock in the evening and take your breakfast the following day at 7:00 o’clock in the morning, the time difference in between the two meals is 12 hours. If you take your lunch at 12:00 noon, the time difference is only 5 hours. And if you take your dinner again at 7:00 o’clock in the evening, the time difference is only 7 hours.Among your regular meals, breakfast has the longest time difference from the previous meal. Thus, it is called breakfast because when you take it, you are actually breaking your fasting! This is the reason why breakfast is so important because you need to replenish a lot of substances consumed by your body in the last 12 hours.
Sleeping too little or too much[1]
Most scientific references recommend that you sleep at least 7 hours every night. If you sleep less than 7 hours, you feel drowsy and your concentration in doing your work is below the optimal level. If you sleep more than 7 hours, you will feel lousy and you are not efficient in doing your work. What is more alarming is that when you lack sleep for several days, your heart will suffer. You will have irregularity in the beating of your heart.It will lose its normal rhythm until you get the right number of hours of sleep!
1. Glover, Bob, Shepherd, Jack, and Glover, Shelly-lynn Florence. The Runner’s Handbook. New York: Penguin Books USA Inc., 1996.

Medical implications of diabetes mellitus combined with lipid abnormalities (Part 2)

Complications of diabetes


When your blood sugar is very much elevated, this will promote the deposition of fatty substances along the internal lining of your different blood vessels—medically known as endothelium. With the deposition, the endothelium is thickened, and, to some extent, it becomes inelastic. With this development, the blood pressure rises.

Lipid abnormalities

Lipid abnormalities refer to the elevations—over normal values—of the blood concentrations of either cholesterol, triglycerides, or low-density lipoprotein, or combinations of them. The more elevations there are, the worse will be the outcome in the years to come.

Complications of lipid abnormalities

Coronary heart disease

With persistent elevations of the lipids, the small vessels supplying the heart with blood—otherwise known as the coronary arteries—are little by little deposited with fatty substances leading ultimately to their partial obstruction or, worse, total obstruction. When your coronary arteries are partially blocked, you will start to experience chest pain which is precipitated or provoked by physical exertions, such as lifting heavy objects, going up the stairs, running, or being excited on something. The worst part, however, is when the obstruction is total or complete wherein a certain area in the muscle of your heart is completely deprived of blood supply. When this happens, you will have heart attack, or medically known as myocardial infarction, and you may die from it.


With increased levels of lipids in your blood, the deposition of fatty substances, known as plaques, in your endothelium is hastened. This deposition does not only narrow the opening of your blood vessels; it further injures your endothelium making it more inelastic. This will surely lead to the development of hypertension.

Commonalities of diabetes and lipid abnormalitiesin terms of complications

Based on the discussion in the preceding sections, you will find out that there are commonalities of diabetes and lipid abnormalities in terms of complications. Both of them could cause hypertensionand coronary heart disease. Therefore, the occurrences of these life-threatening diseases would be very likely—almost 100 percent—if you have both diabetes and lipid abnormalities. Life-threatening as they are, the situation is made worse whenhypertension starts in your systems, because it could also start new, and exacerbateexisting, complications, such as damage of the kidneys, heart, and the eyes. Since these organs have been very much damaged previously by diabetes, then their destruction is very much faster than when only one—diabetes or lipid abnormalities only—exists. Thus, the combination of diabetes and lipid abnormalities is extremely dangerous!

Management of this life-threatening situation

The most appropriate time to start managing this medical situation is when the two problems have been noticed for the first time, as revealed by blood chemistry examinations. Once it has been established that diabetes co-exists with lipid abnormalities, you need to consult your medical doctor at once and without delay, even if you have not been experiencing any discomfort or complaints lately. You need to start your medications at the soonest time possible. If your problems are discovered when you are still young, your taking of the most appropriate medications will greatly delay the onset of the various complications. However, when they are discovered when you are relatively older, say 60 or 70 years old, the different complications have already set in, and you will surely need an array of medications! You will surely need medications for diabetes and   lipid abnormalities—and most probably hypertension. You will surely spend so much for your medications.

Thus, the moment you find that you have both diabetes and lipid abnormalities, consult your medical doctor immediately and take your medications as religiously as possible. This is the only way you can avoid having the complications soonest and avoid taking a number of medications, reducing significantly your expenses.

(Last of a series of 2)

Medical implications of diabetes mellitus combined with lipid abnormalities (Part 1)

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a medical problem wherein your fasting blood sugar (FBS) is above and over the normal range. The normal range of FBS is 70-100 mg/dl. Hence, if your FBS is greater than the said range, you are suffering from diabetes. If you discover that you are a diabetic, waste no time! Visit your medical doctor for consultation and follow faithfully and religiously all the instructions that he will give you. Specifically, take all the medications that he will prescribe to you, follow the diet that he will tell you, and do the physical exercises that he wants you to pursue.

Complications of diabetes

If your elevated fasting blood sugar is not treated for a number of years, you will reap the complications of diabetes. Since it is a systemic disease, it adversely affects several of your important organs, such as your eyes, nerves, heart, blood vessels, and kidneys. Consequently, you might go blind, your skin becomes insensitive to touch, you may experience chest pain due to heart problem, and your blood pressure rises.

Coronary heart disease

One adverse effect of having elevated blood sugar for so many years is the development of coronary heart disease wherein the small blood vessels which supply the heart with blood—otherwise known as coronary arteries—are gradually being clogged by fatty deposits. When the clogging becomes total—that is, the opening of one or more of yourcoronary arteries is completely blocked—you might suffer from heart attack!


The other complication of diabetes is the destruction of your kidneys medically known as diabetic glomerulonephropathy, wherein their ability to filter the blood is gone. They cannot remove the waste products of metabolism in your body, such as the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and blood creatinine, so their concentrations in the blood are elevated and beyond the normal values. If your BUN and blood creatinineare very much higher than the normal range, then your kidneys are compromised. You may need dialysis!



In your eyes, at the back area of your eyeball, there is a structure called retina. It is very sensitive to the light that is entering your eyes, and it transmits the light to the brain for interpretation, in terms of color, intensity, temperature, and other characteristics. If your blood sugar has been elevated for a decade or more, without taking proper medications, the retina will be destroyed, and you might go blind!


The nerves responsible for the sensations coming from the skin are not spared from the complications of diabetes. They are damaged when the small blood vessels—medically known as the vasa nervorum—are blocked as a result of lingering diabetes. When these small blood vessels are blocked, preventing the flow of blood, the nerves reaching and supplying your skin are damaged, resulting in the loss of sensation. Thus, diabetic patients, after so many years of harboring the disease, could not feel from their skin. Their skin is numb and deprived of the much needed sensations.


Aside from causing coronary heart disease wherein the small blood vessels—known as coronary arteries—are blocked and occluded, diabetes also damages the heart at the cellular lever. This means that the smallest parts of the muscles of the heart are damaged, resulting to what is known as cardiomyopathy. Consequently, all the muscles could not do their proper function, and the heart fails—known as heart failure. You should remember thatcardiomyopathy is different from coronary heart disease; however, both of them—at the end—will disable the heart.

(To be continued)

Muscle cramps (Part 3)

How can you prevent muscle cramps?

Have adequate hydration

For intense physical exercises, there are quantitative guidelines on how to hydrate yourself. However, for light physical exercises, there are two rules of thumb that you can follow and remember: (1) the moment you feel being thirsty, feeling of dryness in the throat, take enough water to quench it, and (2) if you are not sweating in spite of having your usual physical exercise, it is possible that you are not properly hydrated. As mentioned previously, maintain the intensity and duration of your physical exercises; do not drastically change it. If you have been following that, but now you are not sweating ascompared to previous ones, then it is highly probable that you are not well hydrated. Take whatever hydrating fluid you have, but plain water is still the best!

Adequate stretching before physical exercises

It was stated in previous article of Powertec the need to have stretching prior to, and after,   havingphysical exercises. In most gyms, there are illustrations pasted and displayed on the wall showing how to properly do them. Follow the instructions, and this will help you prevent having muscle cramps.

Let existing injury heal first

If you have an existing injury, don’t be in a hurry to re-start your physical exercises! At the very least, what you can do is to adjust the intensity and duration of your physical exercises to what you can well afford to do, or totally avoid it for the moment! Before you return to the gym, secure medical clearance from your physician to protect you from aggravating your existing injury.

Do not drastically change your usual regimen

Fatigue of muscles is one of the causes of muscle cramps. For this reason, do not drastically change the intensity and duration of your physical exercises. If ever you want to intensify, do it gradually. If you have been out of the gym for so long, bereft of the usual periodic physical exercises, when you return, do not immediately plunge yourself to your usual work out! Start from your baseline intensity and duration and gradually build it up again. Of course, you will feel that your body could very well adjust to the building up! You will easily catch up and return to your usual work out because you have been exercising for so long, and you had been investing in improving your health; your building up will be much easier and faster compared to someone who would start having physical exercises for the first time! You will feel the difference!

Take vitamins and minerals

The different vitamins and minerals are necessary for some chemical reactions in the body to proceed and take place. Without them, vital processes in the systems will be curtailed. Hence, you will feel some discomfort in your body—one of which is muscle cramps! Daily, take ascorbic acid, vitamin B complex, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and glucosamine sulfate tablets. Consult previous articles of Powertec for the right dosages.

However, if you want to lessen your intake of vitamins and minerals in tablet forms, you can take the following foods:prevent muscle cramps


Internet Website:


Roth, Ruth A. Nutrition and Diet Therapy. Singapore: Delmar Learning, 2007.

Suggested further readings:

  • Powertec article titled: Eleven basic rules in doing gym exercises: Importance of proper form in strength training and how Powertec machines help in reducing the risk of injury
  • Powertec article titled: Causes of injury while doing physical exercises
  • Powertec articles titled: Muscle cramps (Part 1 and 2)

Muscle cramps (Part 1)

What are muscle cramps?

Normally, when we move, there are skeletal muscles involved in it. To execute a particular move, a muscle or a group of muscles will have to alternately contract and relax. In some instances, however, suddenly and without warning, one or more muscle(s) contract(s) in a sustained manner, and the person involved in it has no control over the muscular contraction. This is called muscle crampor true cramps. It is painful, and the concerned individual, in most of the times, will be forced to stop from whatever s/he is doing. The sustained muscular contraction could take place for a few secondsor up to a quarter of an hour.

What are the causes of muscle crmuscle cramp amps?


When there is an existing injury in the musculo-skeletal system, a muscle cramp takes place because the body tends to protect the injured part. In this situation, there is a need to treat the existing injury, lest the muscle cramp keeps on recurring!

Fatigue of muscles

When a muscle or group of muscles isoverused in a physical activity, such as in a gym or outdoor physical exercises, a muscle cramp may take place. Overusing of muscles takes place when a person suddenly executes a physical exercise whose intensity and/or durationis(are) beyond what s/he used to do. If, for instance, you have been doing a treadmill exercise for only 30 minutes in a day, but suddenly you increased it to one hour, you might experience muscle cramp, either during, immediately after, or several hours after the physical exercise.

If you have been doing weightlifting, usually lifting 10 kilograms of weight, but, without proper preparation and training, you suddenly used 15-kilogram weight, you may also experience muscle cramp.

Improper positioning

Proper positioningwhile working or playinggreatly contributes in the prevention of muscle cramps. For instance, if you are using the keyboard of a computer or a laptop, ensure that your wrists are well rested on the working table, and not left hanging beyond its edge! Ensure that your head is well rested at its back against a head support structure of your chair! Ensure that your eyesight level is in line with the computer screen, not very much lower or higher! When you play a particular sport, play it with the right form!

Improper and awkward positioning while asleep could be another cause of muscular cramp! Since you cannot really control your sleeping position, the least that you can do is to have firm and flat bed that will prevent your body from sagging!


When you work out in a gym, or engage in an outdoor sport, you will have perspiration that will release the extra heat generated in your body. However, it is not only water and heat that are released; included is the electrolyte, sodium, that plays a very vital role in maintaining the blood pressure. When significant amount of sodium is taken out from your body, arising mainly from intense physical activity and/or use of medicine, such as diuretics (medicines that promote urination), occurrence of muscle cramp is very likely.

Low blood calcium and/or magnesium

Scientific literatures have established that low calcium and/or magnesium level in the blood could cause muscle cramp. The main reason is that when the blood levels of said electrolytes are low, the excitability of the nerve endings and the muscles being supplied by that nerve is high! Hence, with the slightest provocation, the muscle contracts, producing muscle cramp.

Low calcium and magnesium levels in the blood are caused by pregnancy, vomiting, use of diuretics, vitamin D deficiency and hyperventilation (fast breathing).


Internet Website:

Suggested further readings:

  • Powertec article titled: Eleven basic rules in doing gym exercises: Importance of proper form in strength training and how Powertec machines help in reducing the risk of injury
  • Powertec article titled: Causes of injury while doing physical exercises