Definition of, and lifestyle intervention measures for, prediabetes


Prediabetes is defined as a medical condition wherein your fasting blood sugar is over the normal values, but you are not yetclassified asdiabetic[1]. It is therefore a stage wherein you are about to enter the population of diabetic patients. While it is true that you are not yet adiabetic, this is the right time to implement some intervention measures so that your medical condition will not get worse and will not be transformed into Type 2 diabetes mellitus, when the management is more complicated and more expensive.

To find out if you are a prediabetic or not, you can request your medical doctor to prepare for you a laboratory order for blood chemistry examination, wherein fasting blood sugar (FBS) is one of the tests. If the result of your FBS is between 70-105 mg/dl, then you have normal values. If the value is equal to or greater than 126 mg/dl, then you might have diabetes mellitus. If the value lies between 105 and 125 mg/dl, then you are a prediabetic.If you are a prediabetic, you can do a number of things so that your condition will not get worse—if not lowering your fasting blood sugar to normal level.

Lifestyle intervention measures

Engage in regular physical exercisesand burn your excess abdominal fat[1]

If your waist circumference is 35 inches or longer if you are a woman or 40 inches or longer if you are a man, it is highly probable that you have abdominal fat which needs to be shed off. (Consult Powertec 112, 113, 114, 115). You need to do some abdominal exercises and regular walking. If you would like to do some other forms of physical exercises that you enjoy, then do them! For as long as you can afford to do a particular physical exercise, you are not restricted to do it because as a prediabetic you really need to have regular and periodic physical exercises. By doing this, you will burn your excess abdominal fatand you will increase the competence of your insulin—a substance needed by your cells to pick up your sugar in the blood.



Reduce your weight if you are overweight[1]

If you are overweight, then you need to do some dietary and physical exercises programs that will lower your weight. Consult Powertec 20, 21, 22on how to implement these programs. Being overweight predisposes you to acquire Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Reduce your fat intake[2]

If you are a prediabetic, you need to have dietary modification which includes reduction in yourfat intake. As much as possible, yourfat intake is composed mainly of the unsaturated fatty acids which include both the monounsaturated and polyunsaturatedones. (Consult Powertec 63). You can take some amount of saturated fatty acids, though, because you also need them to maintain your health.

Increase fiber in your diet[2]

If you are overweightand prediabetic, it is recommended thatyou increase the amount of fibers in your diet. Foods rich in fibers are apples, peaches, plums, prunes, bananas, oats, barley, dried peas, beans, lentils, vegetables, brown rice, nuts, and seeds. (Consult Powertec153). If the amount of fibers in your diet is relatively significant, unknowingly, you will reduce the number of calories that you will take in every meal, thereby helping in your weight reduction.

Avoid simple carbohydrates

You need to avoid simple carbohydrates, such as candies, chocolates, cakes, honey, soft drinks, ice cream, and table sugar. Avoid putting sugar in your coffee. If you are very fond of fruits, avoid the sweet ones, such as grapes, mangoes, and pineapple. If you take a lot of simple carbohydrates, your blood sugar will immediately rise up.





  1. Pratley RE, Matfin G. Pre-diabetes: clinical relevance and therapeutic approach. British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Diseases. 2007;7(3):120-129.

The relationship between saturated fatty acids and cholesterol

Medical importance of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol

In the development of diseases of the heart and blood vessels, otherwise known as cardiovascularproblems, two substances take the center stage. These are: (1) saturated fatty acids, and (2) cholesterol. Their relationship on how they could possiblywreak havoc toyourcardiovascular system will be examined in this article.

Unhealthy alliance between the saturated fatty acids and cholesterol

Biochemically, saturated fatty acids promote the formation of the so-called very lowdensity lipoproteins (VLDLs) which containrelatively more cholesterol, and they are used by the body at slower rate than the bigger lipoproteins [1]. Since theVLDLsare not immediately used by the body, the cholesterol molecules that they are carrying willbe depositedin the peripheral tissues instead, leading eventually to diseases in the heart and blood vessels.

The strongest link between saturated fatty acid and cholesterol has been established by some epidemiological studies wherein it was found out that high intake of saturated fatty acids led to increased level of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol[2]which is considered as “bad” because it brings and deposits cholesterol in the peripheral tissues, such as the muscles and blood vessels—among other organs.

To avoid the unhealthy effects of saturated fatty acids, therefore, it is recommended that they should be substituted with unsaturated fatty acids in the diet[1]. In Powertec (63), concreteexamples of the different sources of each type of fatty acid were written; all you have to do is to take more of the foods containingunsaturated fatty acids and less of the saturated ones.

It has to be emphasized, however, that total and absolute removal of saturated fatty acids from the diet is not recommended because if that is resorted to, you may experience some forms of chronic diseases which could be due to lack of intake of saturated fatty acids. There are different kinds of saturated fatty acids, and until now there are still questions on how each one contributes to the maintenance of your health. It is unwise, therefore, that you completely remove them from your diet[2].


Recommended apportionment of your food groups

To meet your daily energy and nutritional requirements—and thus reducing your risk of developing chronic deficiency disorders—the National Academies Institute of Medicine recommends the following breakdown of apportioning the different food groups as sources of your energy: 45-65% of your calories must come from carbohydrates, 20-35% from fat, and 10-35% from protein[2].

To give you hint on how you could implement the aforestated recommendation, it is necessary and highly recommended that you undergo blood chemistry examination, complete blood count, and urinalysis. You may consult your medical doctor, and request him to prepare laboratory order for you. Submit this order to any certified medical laboratory so that the tests will be performed. Upon receiving the results, you go back to your medical doctor for his prescriptions and/or advise.

Nutritionally, however, if the level(s) of your cholesterol and/or triglycerides is/are high, then limit your fat intake to 20%, instead of the maximum recommended value of 35%. In addition, as much as possible, that 20% of fat should consist mainly of the unsaturated fats—which could be in the form of monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats {Consult Powertec (63)}.

If the level(s) of your cholesterol and/or triglycerides are normal, your blood pressure is normal, and your liver enzymes (SGPT and SGOT) are normal, you can afford to take dietary fat at a maximum level of 35%.To help you prepare your diet, you can consult a certified nutritionist-dietitian. He/she can help you select the proper kind and quantity of foods that you need to take to meet the 20% or 35% of fat in your diet.



  1. Murray, Robert K., Daryl K. Granner, Peter A. Mayes, and Victor W. Rodwell. Harper’s Biochemistry. Appleton and Lange: Stamford, Connecticut, 2000.
  2. Bruce J, Dillard, CJ. Saturated fats: what dietary intake? The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. September 2004;80(3):550-559.

Nutritional guidelines to prevent heart diseases(Part 2)

Limit your intake of salt

As mentioned and discussed in Powertec 152, increased intake of salt during yourelderly life may increase your blood pressure (hypertension) because your kidneys could not eliminate as much salt as they used to be from your body. When you start to experienceit and it remains unchecked and untreated for several number of years, your heart enlarges, and you have what is called in medicine as cardiomegaly. When you have this medical condition and still you refuse to take the necessary medications or fail to take them, your heart will eventually fail, and you have the condition medically known as heart failure. You may die from it.

It is clear from the preceding section that too much intake of salt from your diet could lead to a heart disease; therefore, immediately after knowing that you cannot afford to take excess salt, you need to exert extra caution and effort in determining which food(s) to take and not to take.

Increase your intake of foods rich in fiber

Beneficial effects

Dietary fibers are substances present in foods which are not digested in your gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This means that they stay in, and pass through, your GIT without being digested and transformed into another substance. They remain as they are, without contributing any substance, vitamins, or minerals to your body. However, they have the following important functions:(1) they increase the bulk of your stool, leading to promotion of your bowel movement, and thus preventing constipation and colon cancer, (2) prevent the absorption of cholesterol, which is incriminated as one of the causes of diseases in your heart and blood vessels[1], and (3) lower the total food calories that you will take each daycausing you to lose weight and have lower blood glucose.

Since the fibers remain undigested in your GIT, they form greater portion of your stool; since your GIT is sensitive to the volume of your stool, the bulkier your stool is, the more your GIT will contract, and your stool will be finally squeezed out into the outside. Hence, if you have on and off constipation, taking adequate amount of fibers daily will help you overcome it. When you have regular bowel movement, the time contact between your stool and the inner lining of your intestine is shortened. With this, the chance that your food—which could be an unhealthy food—willinduce the start of cancer in your intestine will be lessened. Hence, you will be protected from it. In addition to your protection from constipation and cancer, fibers will help you avoid being overweight and having high blood glucose. These take place because more fibers in the diet will make you feel full from the food that you have been eating sooner than when there are no adequate fibers.As a result, you will eat less than when your diet is fiber-free.

Types of fibers

Although dietary fibers could not be digested, some of them could be dissolved in water, while others remain undissolved. Hence, there are two types of fibers: (1) water-soluble, and (2) water-insoluble. Examples of each type are listed in Table 1 below:

Food sources of dietary fibers                             (End of a series of 2)


  1. Roth, Ruth A. Nutrition and Diet Therapy. Singapore: Delmar Learning, 2007.

Nutritional guidelines to prevent heart diseases(Part 1)

Eat foods low in saturated fat and cholesterol

The quantity and quality of foods that you take play a great role in the development of medical problems, such as heart diseases, andit has been established in several researches that foods rich in fatsand cholesterol are notorious and paramount in doing so. However, only the saturated fatshave been found to contribute in the development of heart diseases—and not all forms of fats. The so-called unsaturated, consisting mainly of themonounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, are not incriminated as possible causes of the said diseases; therefore, they can be taken in moderate amounts.

Cholesterol is a fatty substance (lipid) which is either produced in the body or taken from foods. Biochemically, they can be formed in your body from saturated fats that you have previously taken in. This is the reason why you are often advised to limit your intake of red meat, such as beef, pork, and lamb, because they contain a lot of saturated fats. Another way of having increased cholesterol in your body is taking a lot of foods rich in it, such as quail and chicken eggs, animal-derived cooking oil, cookies and butter, and many more.

To help you avoid taking foods rich in saturated fat and cholesterol, every time you buy a packed food from a supermarket or a store, always look at the “Nutrition Facts”, and find out the saturated fat and cholesterol contents of the food stuff. Select the foods that contain the least amount of saturated fat and cholesterol. Therefore, it is not advisable that you go shopping for foods with very limited time to do it! Allot adequate time for your shopping, especially if your intention is to buy foods for yourself and your family members.

Limit your intake of salt

As you grow older, the capacity of your kidneys to eliminate excess salt that you took in from your diet is decreased. For this reason, you will reach a certain age wherein you retain unwanted salt because your kidneys could not eliminate them. When the concentration of salt in your blood is higher than what is normally needed, water which is normally inside your different cells will now enter your blood vessels, and this movement of water will increase your so-called intravascular volume—the blood volume inside your blood vessels—leading to increase in your blood pressure. Thus, when you realize that you cannot afford to take in more salt than what you used to do, limit your salt intake.

There are many ways of avoiding taking in more salt that what you need. Firstly, avoid eating out as much as possible. The reason for this is that you cannot control the amount of salt that is mixed in your meals in the restaurants and other establishments which cater to serving foods to customers, in contrast to what is cooked at home wherein you could instruct your cook to limit the amount of salt admixed in it. Secondly, if you are eating out and find out that the food(s) you ordered is(are) very salty, discontinue taking it (them)! It seems that you would be wasting money when you do it! However, it is good for your health, and it will prevent you from having your blood pressure increased! Thirdly, whenever you buy packed food, always look at the “Nutrition Facts”, and look at the salt or “sodium” content. Select food(s) with the least amount of salt—less than 7% as much as possible. Expect, however, that when you are buying processed food(s), that the salt content is relatively high; thus, as much as possible, resort to buying fresh foods and cook them at home—if needed.

(To be continued)

Role of cholesterol in the development of cardiovascular diseases(Part 2)

Anatomy of the blood vessel wall

You have three types of blood vessels: (1) arteries, (2) veins, and (3) capillaries. Your arteries carry the blood from your heart and deliver them to different parts of your body. You veins collect the blood from the different parts of your body and return it to the heart. Your capillaries, on the other hand, connect your network of arteries to your network of veins.In the development of hypertension and heart diseases, the type of blood vessels that are primarily involved are the arteries.Therefore, the center of discussion in the next few sections will be on them.

Your arteries can be likened to your water pipes at home. They are tubes wherein fluid passes through. In your water pipes, water passes through them; in your blood vessels, blood will pass through them. Your arteries are relatively thick tubes, and they are made this way because they need to withstand the high pressure generated by your blood and the regularpumping of your heart.

Tunica adventitia

The wall of your arteries are made up of three layers: (1) tunica adventitia, (2) tunica media, and (3) tunica intima, also known as the endothelium.The tunica adventitia is the outermost layer, the tunica media is the middle layer, and the tunica intima is the innermost layer. The tunica adventitia is responsible for attaching your arteries to the surrounding tissues, thereby preventing them from moving astray. In addition, it provides some strength for your arteries. The tunica media is mainly responsible for providing the strength of your arteries to contain your varying blood pressure. Meanwhile, the tunica intima provides the internal lining of your arteries.

Important role of the tunica intimaor endothelium

Since the tunica intima or endothelium is the innermost lining of your arteries, it is in intimate contact with the flow of your blood. As your blood flows in your arteries, your endothelium offers a frictional resistance to such flow; therefore, the endothelium receives the brunt of the flowing blood. In the parlance of medicine, this is called the shearing effect of the flowing blood. When your blood pressure is very much increased compared to the normal values, this shearing effect also increases, and your endothelium will be injured. The higher the blood pressure is, the higher and more serious the injury to your endothelium will be. This injury will be the beginning of developing the so-called atherosclerosis wherein fatty substances are attached to the lining of the endothelium, giving rise to inelastic arteries which will, in turn, lead to the development of hypertension and heart diseases.

Injury to the endothelium and high level of LDL-cholesterol

In the development of atherosclerosis (deposition of fatty substances in the endothelium), it has been established that the first stage in the process is the infliction of injury to the endothelium.This injury to the endotheliumare caused by increased blood pressure and the increased level of LDL-cholesterol[1]. Hence, if you have elevated blood pressure and you have elevation of the LDL-cholesterol, your hypertension will get worse as days go by, if you do not take medicines to control your high blood pressure and the elevated level of LDL-cholesterol.

The LDL-cholesterol has dual effects in the causation and worsening of atherosclerosis. Firstly, it decreases the production of nitric oxide which is responsible for the dilation of the arteries[1]. Thus, in the absence of nitric oxide, you are prone to have elevated blood pressure because of constriction of your arteries.Secondly, with increased level of LDL-cholesterol in the blood, these fatty substances, together with platelets, could attach themselves in the injured sites in the endothelium. This will make the arteries inelastic and obstructed—be it partial or total—leading to the development of hypertension and heart diseases.


Davigon J, Ganz, Peter. Atherosclerosis: evolving vascular biology and clinical implications, role of endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis. Circulation. 2004;109: III-27-III-32. doi:10.1161/01.CIR. 0000131515.03336.f8.

Role of cholesterol in the development of cardiovascular diseases(Part 1)

Nature of cholesterol

Cholesterol is a form of fatty substance needed by your body for the maintenance of cell membranes,and production of bile acid and hormones[1]. With insufficient cholesterol, your cells will be adversely affected because the integrity of the cell membrane which encloses all its structures will be impaired. In addition, the quality of your bile acid which is one of the components of your bile and the different hormones that you need every minute of your life will deteriorate.

Cholesterol can be sourced from: (1) the foods and drinks that you take, and (2)the different chemical reactions taking place in your body. Because it is produced in your body, it has been postulated that probably you do not need the cholesterol coming from your foods and drinks! Hence, the cholesterol being produced in your body is enough to meet your needs[1]! However, it is not possible to totally remove all the cholesterol that is in your foods! It is impossible! Thus, if you want to control your dietary intake of it, you need to be choosy with your foods, selecting only those which are not rich in it (Consult Powertec 144). Examples of foods rich in cholesterol are meats, liver and other organ meats, dairy foods, egg yolks, and shellfish[2].

Transfer and elimination of cholesterol

When cholesterol is absorbed in your gastrointestinal tract, it travels in the bloodstream in the form of lipoproteins. It cannot travel as cholesterol; it has to be in the form of lipoproteins. There are two lipoproteins that carry cholesterol: (1) the low density lipoprotein (LDL) and the (2) high density lipoprotein (HDL). The LDLcarry the majority of cholesterol, around 75 to 85%, while the HDL carry approximately 15 to 25%[1]. Thus, they are called either LDL-cholesterol or HDL-cholesterol.

Aside from having different densities, the LDL-cholesterol and the HDL-cholesterol have different behavior when they are in the bloodstream. The LDL-cholesterol tends to bring the cholesterol away from the liver; that is, it brings its passengers to the far-flung structures of the body, such as in the blood vessels and peripheral tissues. Consequently, the cholesterol molecules are deposited in these organs. Specifically, when the cholesterol molecules are deposited in the inner lining of your medium to large blood vessels, these structures become inelastic, leading to the development of hypertension. When they are deposited in the small blood vessels of your heart, you will have heart disease and possible heart attack[3]. Since the LDL-cholesterol contributes to the development of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and heart diseases, it is also known as the bad cholesterol.

The HDL-cholesterol, on the other hand, carries cholesterol molecules from the peripheral organs, such as the muscles and blood vessels, and brings them back to the liver—otherwise known as the reverse cholesterol transport—where they are taken up and incorporated as part of the bile. In a way, these cholesterol molecules were removed from the bloodstream, without inflicting any damage to the blood vessels and other organs of your body. Since the HDL-cholesterolhelped to remove cholesterol in the blood, it is also referred to as the good cholesterol.

Injury to the inner lining of blood vessels and cholesterol deposition

The innermost layer of your blood vessels is called the endothelium, and lately this structure has been receiving a lot of research attention because it has been becoming more clear that it is very much involved in the causation of atherosclerosis (deposition of fatty substances in the blood vessels) andhypertension. It has been postulated that the deposition of fatty substances is preceded by the injury of the endothelium.

(To be continued)


  1. Sacher, Ronald A. and Richard A. McPherson. Widmann’s Clinical Interpretation of Laboratory Tests. F. A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, 2000.

Relationship between the intake of saturated fats and the development of cardiovascular problems

Nature of saturated fats

Saturated fats (SFs) are also known as saturated fatty acids. They are found in meats, coconut, palm oil, palm kernel oil, butter, egg yolks, milk, and milk products (except fat-free) [1] {Consult Powertec 63}.SFs come in different names, and examples are formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, valeric, caproic, caprylic (octanoic), capric (decanoic), lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, arachidic, behenic, and lignoceric[2]. Thus, if a food product that you are buying contains one or more of these, then you know that it contains SFs, and the best way to find out the SFsincorporatedin any grocery product is to look at the “Nutrition Facts” wherein the different substances contained in it are listed, including the quantity in terms of percent.

Relationship of saturated fats with cardiovascular diseases

It has been established from researches that if your diet is high in SFs, the level of your low-density lipoprotein(LDL) cholesterol is also high[3]. You should remember that LDL cholesterol is also known as the bad cholesterol, because it carries cholesterol away from yourliver and deposited them to far-away structures, such as the blood vessels. When LDL cholesterol is deposited in the internal lining of the blood vessels, atherosclerosis takes place, and the blood vessels become inelastic, leading to the development of hypertension.

Neutralizing the adverse effects of saturated fats

Substitution of saturated with polyunsaturated fats

One of the ways of counteracting the adverse health effects of SFsis to replace them with the polyunsaturated fats(PFs). If PFs are taken in instead of SFs, the LDL cholesterol decreases, and the ratio of total cholesterol with the high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which is known as the good cholesterol, decreases, too [3],           implying that either the total cholesterol decreases, or the HDL cholesterol increases, or both scenario happen. When the LDL cholesterol decreases and the HDL cholesterol increases, the combination is a perfect recipe for the prevention of heart and blood vessel diseases.

PFs are abundantly found in safflower oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, soybeans, tofu, and fish[1]{Consult Powertec 63}. In simpler terms, what you will do is to replace meat with fish, and replace animal-based cooking oil with the ones taken and derived from plants.


Avoidance of replacing saturated fats with carbohydrates

When carbohydrates are used to replace SFs, it was found out that the level of both the triglycerides (another form of fat) andLDL cholesterol are elevated in the blood while the HDL cholesterol decreases. These consequences are all the more pronounced if the carbohydratesare refined and added with sugar[3]. This is bad for the heart and the blood vessels. Thus, it should be avoided.

Dietary cholesterol should be avoided if significant saturated fats have been in the diet

Based on animal researches, it was determined that if the dietary cholesterol has been increased,   the tendency of saturated fat to increase the LDL cholesterol level in the blood is also increased. This means that working alone, saturated fats increase the LDL cholesterol level in the blood. If the intake of dietary cholesterol is increased, it will aggravate the LDL cholesterol-raising effect of saturated fats. Therefore, as much as possible, the simultaneous intake of significant amount of dietary cholesterol and saturated fats should be avoided [3].

Foods rich in cholesterol are the following: eggs, roast beef, leg lamb (lean), leg lamb (lean and fat), pork chop (lean), chicken leg (fried, meat and skin), crabmeat (canned), salmon (canned), shrimp (canned) [1]. You need to avoid taking these foods if you have been taking a lot of saturated fats.


  1. Roth, Ruth A. Nutrition and Diet Therapy. Singapore: Delmar Learning, 2007.
  2. Murray, Robert K., Daryl K. Granner, Peter A. Mayes, and Victor W. Rodwell. Harper’s Biochemistry. Appleton and Lange: Stamford, Connecticut, 2000.

Siri-Tarino, P., et. al. (2010). Saturated fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease: modulation by replacement nutrients.

Basic principles in doing physical exercises[1](Part 2)

“Principle 5: Regularity[1]

This principle means that when you have decided to run for three times a week, then do that commitment consistently! If the gap between your exercise days varies a lot, you will not largely benefit from your physical exercises. In other words, your physical exercise does not practically contribute in your fitness if not done consistently and regularly. Always remember that it is hard to develop fitness; however, it is very easy to lose it! Thus, the fitness that you have gained within a period of one month could be lost approximately in one week if you stopped exercising for that period[1]!

“Principle 6: Individuality”[1]

No individual is a complete replica of another. Each one is different from others. Hence, what you can afford to do—in terms of the intensity and frequency of a particular physical exercise—cannot be performed by, and imposed to, another. There are a lot of factors that will determine your capacity to do a particular exercise. Some factors that could affect such capacity are the following: sex, age, height, weight, genetic make-up, length of time that you have been having physical exercises, and many more[1]. Thus, if you see your friend to have an easier time doing a particular work-out, do not conclude that you can do it as well! You may injure yourself! What you need to do is listen to your body and find out what you can afford to do. Never use another individual as your benchmark! Your own self is your benchmark.

“Principle 7: Patience”[1]

Fitness is not achieved overnight! Neither is it lost overnight! Whatever is the outcome, you need weeks and months to achieve it—not days! From being sedentary, an adult person needs from eight to ten weeks to achieve fitness[1]! Hence, you cannot fast track the development of your fitness! You need time to achieve it! Most of all, you need patience to achieve it! If you lack patience, you will tend to hurry up your gym sessions even if your body is not ready to tackle it! If you insist, you might injure yourself!

“Principle 8: Moderation”[1]

Too much of anything is bad! Thus, excessive drinking, exercising, book writing, gardening under the sun, and other preoccupations are bad. You need to balance your habitual work which usually generates stress in you with physical exercises which could counteract its adverse effects[1].

“Principle 9: Reversibility”[1]

When you exercise regularly, you will achieve a certain degree of fitness. If for a reason you stop in some days to exercise, your fitness will be decreased to a certain extent. If you stop completely from exercising, all your fitness will slip away. To preserve your fitness, do not stop completely from exercising. Hence, use your fitness; otherwise, you will lose it[1]!

“Principle 10: Share the flowers”[1]

The earlier you decide to have regular physical exercises, the better it will be! It will be a hard decision because you really need to eke out time for it. However, the moment you have reached that decision to give yourself some exercises, it will be the beginning of wellness for yourself. While doing it, however, you must still have the time to smell flowers and appreciate the gift of time that is given to you. When you meet others, encourage them to do the same: to have regular physical exercises. When you do that, you are not only sharing your knowledge—you are sharing the flowers [1]!


Glover, Bob, Shepherd, Jack, and Glover, Shelly-lynn Florence. The Runner’s Handbook. New York: Penguin Books USA Inc., 1996.

Basic principles in doing physical exercises[1](Part 1)

“Principle 1: Overload Gently[1]

This principle means that you can increase the load of your physical exercises as you progress in your program; however, it should be done gradually. If you have running program, during the first week, the best that you can do is merely to walk for thirty minutes each day or every other day. On the second week, you can maintain the distance and frequency of your running, but this time you can walk alternately with running. Hence, you can walk for a total of 15 minutes and run for another 15 minutes.

There are three factors that will determine the load that you could give to yourself. These are frequency (how often), intensity (how fast), and time (how far). In increasing the load of your physical exercise, you need to alter just one of the factors. As much as possible, do not change more than one of the factors; otherwise, you will be confused as to whether you are increasing your load or not. In the example above, by shifting from total walking to alternating walking with running, in effect, you are only changing the intensity of the exercise. The frequency and time are not changed! They remain constant[1]!

“Principle 2: Progressive Stress – Train, Don’t Strain”[1]

As mentioned in the preceding section, introduction of additional load to your physical exercises should be done gradually. By the same token, when you train yourself to increase your stamina, you should also do it in progressive manner. You may not know it, but your body has great potential to progress in its ability to tackle whatever amount of load that you will introduce for as long as it is done in progressive manner. While it could gradually adapt to higher load, however, it has also limits; hence, do not strain your body.Once it has reached its highest load, stay there for some time. Do not increase it further. You may decrease a little bit, but not so much[1].

“Principle 3: Recovery – The Hard-Easy Method”[1]

There are times when you feel good and strong after doing a certain set of physical exercises. For this reason, you are sometimes tempted to do it again the following day! For your information, that is not the right way to do your physical exercises! Although you feel good, you need to rest the following day and allow your body to recover from the previous workout. There are no hard and fast rule on how many days you should rest before you do your physical exercises again! It depends on what your body can afford to do. Therefore, you need to listen to your body. If you need two days to rest, then do so. Another option that you can do is instead of totally resting on the recovery days, you can do light workouts[1].

“Principle 4: Specificity”

The set of physical exercises that you do depends on your goal. If you want to develop the muscles of your upper extremities, then you do push-ups. If you want to reduce the size of your bulging abdomen, then you do sit-up exercise. If you want to give more endurance to your heart and muscles, then you can do running! For a particular of goal, there is a set of muscles to be developed and strengthened; therefore, it requires a particular type of physical exercise.If you want to join in a running competition, then your training should revolve around running! You cannot do swimming as your daily physical exercise or focus of training, then you will compete in running! Your type of training depends on your goal[1]!


Glover, Bob, Shepherd, Jack, and Glover, Shelly-lynn Florence. The Runner’s Handbook. New York: Penguin Books USA Inc., 1996.

The components of wellness program[1](Part 3)

“Work to balance the stresses and joys of work, friends and family” [1]

When you workin a corporate setting or otherwise, generation of stress cannot be avoided. It will inevitably take place because there are deadlines to be met and—if you are a supervisor—there are subordinates to contend with. However, to balance out the adverse effects of stress, you need to generate joy and contentment in yourself and among your co-workers. This is easier said than done, but the secret of having joy in the midst of your workplace, family, and friends is to practice openness, transparency, and good communication skill.

In a corporate setting, joy and contentment could be generated and spread if you—yourself—have it. Being happy and contented is very “infectious”, especially if you are a supervisor! If your subordinates see that you are in good mood, they will, in turn, reciprocate what you feel, and they would show the same feeling in the workplace. If you are a very sensitive person—and this is expected of from a supervisor or manager—you should be able to immediately sense the general mood of your working environment. If, in spite of your move to disseminate joy and contentment in the workplace, there seems to be something preventing it, then find out what it is. More often than not, some of   your staff have personal or work-related problems, and you need to find out.

After pinpointing those who have problems, you need to talk to each one of them, and find out what is bothering them. This is now the start of “good communication”. Once you have understood their problem(s), then you can address them accordingly. When the problems are solved, then expectedly the mood in your workplace will turn for the best. Always remember that staff with problems—related with you as a supervisor or not—are problematic employees! Talk to them and help solve their problems.

Similar to the workplace, in your family and among your friends, there are a number of individuals to contend with. You can apply the same techniques of disseminating joys and resolving impediments to having it.

Engage in regular physical exercises

The role of regular physical exercises in the promotion of health has been fully established by scientific researches. There is no doubt about it. Thus, after consulting some experts or websites, you need to start having regular physical exercises. One of the experts that you need to consult is a medical doctor who will examine and tell if you are medically allowed to engage in regular physical exercises.Once he issued you with medical clearance to have gym exercises, then you can start.

Regular physical exercises are not only good for your muscles and bones; they are also needed in the conditioning of your heart. In addition, they relax your whole body and refresh your mood.

Take your meals on time

It was mentioned in the preceding that you need to take your regular meals. Such advice is not complete because in addition to having regular meals, you need to take them on time. There are times that you do not have the desire to take your meal yet because you are not hungry. You delay your meal until you really feel the so-called hunger pangs. This is not advisable. If the time for your regular eating has come, take your meal even if you are not so hungry. If you want you can reduce the amount of food that you will take; but still, take your meal on time and avoid starving yourself.



  1. Glover, Bob, Shepherd, Jack, and Glover, Shelly-lynn Florence. The Runner’s Handbook. New York: Penguin Books USA Inc., 1996.