What is metabolic syndrome?(Part 4)

Management

Changes in lifestyle

The underlying factors that contribute to the development of MS are obesity, physical inactivity, and atherogenic diet[1]. If you analyze closely   the three factors, they can be mitigated by lifestyle changes, such as engaging in more physical exercises, taking the right number of food calories,  and shifting to non-atherogenic diet. Some of these were discussed in Powertec (170).

Attain ideal body weight

Depending on your height, sex, and degree of physical activity, you have what we call as the ideal body weight (IBW). IBW refers to your body weight which is good for your health. If your weight is higher than your IBW, then you can be classified as overweight. If less than yourIBW, then you can be categorized as underweight. Being overweight or underweight is bad for you! You need to correct it as soon as possible! In line with the present topic, being overweight is more of your concern because it will lead to obesity, or you have been obese for some time now. If you are obese, then you are prone to develop metabolic syndrome (MS).

The first step then is to find out if you have the right body weight by computing for your IBW. The formula to be used in computing for this is well discussed in Powertec (20). If you are overweight, you need to shed off your excess weight through physical exercises and modification of your diet. The different methods of doing these strategies are well discussed in Powertec (21 and 22).

Treating and preventing  aggravating diseases

If you have elevations of  LDL-Cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose, then treatments need to be directed to these abnormalities. If you still do not have medical doctor at this stage, then you need to find one. Look for a  family doctor for initial evaluation and management; and if hefinds  that you need to be referred to other medical doctors, he might advise you to see a cardiologist  and/or an endocrinologist. If your problem is more on the LDL-Cholesterol and blood pressure, he might refer you to a cardiologist. If you have elevation of blood glucose, he might refer you to an endocrinologist. More often than not, especially if you were caught at the earlier stage of the diseases, your family doctor could very well manage your problems.

If your fasting blood glucose  is still normal, then you need to observe dietary regimen geared  towards the prevention of  diabetes. Firstly, avoid simple sugar and take more of the complex carbohydrates with fibers, such as bread and brown rice. Secondly, take more of vegetables and fish. If your blood pressure falls in the borderline values, then avoid meals high in  salt and fat. Avoid saturated fats which are  found in meat and cooking oil derived from animals. In addition, avoid trans fats which are found in cookies, doughnuts, and frozen pizza. You can read more on transfatsby consulting Powertec (103, 104, and 105).

Implications of MS

The recognition of MS at the earliest possible time is of utmost importance because, if unchecked and untreated for a considerable period of time, it will lead to heart diseases, bleeding in the brain (stroke), or diabetes. To avoid having these complications,   you should reduce your weight if you are overweight, increase your physical activity, and  eat a heart-healthy diet which is rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and fish. In addition, you need to take medications to control your blood pressure, blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and your blood sugar[1].

(End of a series of 4)

Reference:

  1. AHA/NHLBI Scientific Statement. Diagnosis and Management of Metabolic Syndrome. http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/112/17/2735.full

What is metabolic syndrome?(Part 3)

Diagnosis

There are several ways of diagnosing metabolic syndrome (MS). However, the criteria being used by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III, otherwise known as ATP III, starting in 2001 is the simplest and best understood. In this criteria, if you have 3 of the 5 abnormalitiesfound in MS, then you can be considered as suffering from the syndrome[1]. This means that if you will not seek medical consultation as soon as possible, you may suffer and die from the so-called atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), such as heart attack (myocardial infarction) and bleeding in the brain (stroke). These medical problems could kill you; therefore, if you are diagnosed as having MS, your medical condition needs periodic medical attention and your utmost cooperation.

ATP IIImentioned the following abnormalities as the components of MS:

  1. Abdominal obesity
  2. High triglycerides in the blood
  3. Low HDL-Cholesterol
  4. High blood pressure
  5. High fasting blood sugar.

If you have at least 3 of the above abnormalities, then you are suffering from MS[1].

Management

Changes in lifestyle

The underlying factors that contribute to the development of MS are obesity, physical inactivity, and atherogenic diet. If you look closely at the three factors, they can be mitigated by lifestyle changes, such as engaging in more physical exercises and shifting to non-atherogenic diet.

Increase physical activities

It is a well-known fact that physical exercises are needed by your body. If you engaged in it, among other beneficial effects, your high blood pressure will go down, and your body weight will not increase that much as compared to not having physical exercises at all. By not having excess weight, you will be removing one of the components of MS which is abdominal obesity.

The least that you can do is to have walking for at least 30 minutes—daily. If you cannot do this, then you need to contrive on having physical exercises, such as parking a little bit far from your point of destination, then walk! Have shopping then while transferring from one place to another, you do a brisk walking! You can think of other ways of giving yourself physical exercises. However, ensure that you can afford to do them.

Shift to non-atherogenic diet

A diet is said to be atherogenic when it is rich in saturated fats (SFs). They are found in meats, coconut, palm oil, palm kernel oil, butter, egg yolks, milk, and milk products (except fat-free) [2]. It has been established from researches that if your diet is high in SFs, the level of your low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is also high [3]. You should remember that LDL cholesterol is also known as the bad cholesterol, because it carries cholesterolmolecules away from   your liver and deposit them to far-away structures, such as the blood vessels. When LDL cholesterol is deposited in the internal lining of the blood vessels, atherosclerosis takes place, and the blood vessels become inelastic, leading to the development of hypertension. {You can read on Powertec(144)}.

Thus, you need to avoid taking a lot of foods rich in SFs; instead, shift to the monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats which are found in canola oil, olive oil, peanut oil, nuts, avocados, sardines, safflower oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, soybeans, tofu, and fish [2]. Hence, you need to use the cooking oil as prescribed and stated in the preceding so that you will take more of the unsaturated fats (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated). In a nutshell, avoid using cooking oil derived from animals and take more of fish, instead of meat. {You can read on Powertec (63)}.

(To be continued)

References:

  1. AHA/NHLBI Scientific Statement. Diagnosis and Management of Metabolic Syndrome. http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/112/17/2735.full
  2. Roth, Ruth. Nutrition and Diet Therapy. Singapore: Delmar Learning, 2007.
  3. Siri-Tarino, P., et. al. (2010). Saturated fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease: modulation by replacement nutrients. http://www.ncibi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc2943062/

What is metabolic syndrome?(Part 2)

Causes

Overweight and obesity[1]

If you are overweight and obese, very likely, you will developmetabolic syndrome(MS). Hence, you need to compute for your ideal body weight (IBW) every now and then so that you will know if your weight is falling beyond the normal and accepted figures; if overweight, you need to shed off some of your weight. The formula to be used in computing for your IBW is discussed in Powertec (20).

Inactive lifestyle[1]

Inactive lifestyle—that is, you lack physical exercises for a long time—will also lead to the development of MS. The reason for this is that if your life is largely sedentary, you will gain weight and become overweight.

Insulin resistance[1]

Normally, when you take your foods rich in carbohydrates, the glucose level in your blood rises. Consequently, your insulin which is responsible for the cellular absorption of your glucose will also increase. With the action of your insulin, the glucose molecules enter your cells, and it will be used as source of energy. If there is insulin resistance, your cells will not positively react to the presence of glucose even if insulin is around and available. Hence, glucose is not absorbed by your cells[2].

Age[1]

As you grow older, the possibility that you will develop MS increases.This is one of the factors that you cannot control. Therefore, if you have been having hypertension since the middle period of your life, and if you have been gaining weight, you might develop it.

Genetics[1]

Your predisposition to develop MS is also beyond your control. Among its causes,insulin resistance is one of the genetically acquired. It runs in your family; hence, if one or more of your siblings has(have) it, you will, by and large, develop it,too. As early as possible, submit yourself to some laboratory tests.

Excessive blood clotting[1]

There are indications that when you have excessive blood clotting, you are prone to have MS. Thus, if there were occasions in medical settings beforethat you were found to have this medical disorder, search for the indications of other components of MS because, by and large, you have them, too.

Low-grade inflammation throughout the body[1]

When you have inflammation in a certain part of your body, such as in your knee joints, you will experience pain; depending on its severity, you will correspondingly experience a particular intensity of pain—the more severe it is, the more painful it will be. In the case of MS, you have been experiencing low-grade inflammation throughout your body, but   you may not be able to feel and experience the pain; instead, some complications have been taking place in your different organs. With generalized inflammation, the small blood vessels—known as coronary arteries—in your heart may have been reacting to it, and the diameter of their openings may have been reduced, promoting the occurrences of heart attack or myocardial infarction. Your kidneys may also react to the inflammation, and their filtrating structures, known as glomeruli, may be damaged. Since it is generalized, no part of your body would be spared from its adverse effects.

Others

The following may also cause MS: fatty liver, polycystic ovarian syndrome, gallstones, breathing problems during sleep. Right now, these possible causes of MS are still under investigation[1].

Symptoms

The symptoms of metabolic syndrome are related to its complications. Hence, if you already have hypertension, you may experience headache and dizziness; if diabetes has been present, you may experience frequent urination, weakness, and thirst[1]; if the increased levels of triglycerides and cholesterol have taken their toll, you may experience chest pain upon exertion.

(To be continued)

References:

  1. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, US Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/ms/causes
  2. Mayo Clinic, Diseases and Conditions, Metabolic Syndrome. http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/metabolic-syndrome/basics/definition/con-20027243

What is metabolic syndrome?(Part 1)

Definition

Metabolic syndrome (MS) refers to a medical condition wherein you have a combination of abnormal findings in your health profile. These are: 1. increased blood pressure{systolic blood pressure of 130 millimeters of mercury (mmHg) or greater, or diastolic blood pressure of 85 mmHg or greater}, 2.a high fasting blood sugar {100 mg/dl or greater}, 3.excess body fat around the waist {waist circumference of 40 inches or over in men, and 35 inches or over in women}, 4. the level of HDL cholesterol is less than 40 mg/dl in men or less than 50 mg/dl in women, and 5.abnormal triglyceride levels {150 milligrams per deciliter of blood (mg/dl) or greater}. To label you as having MS, you should have at least three of these abnormalities in your medical profile[1,2].

Stricter definition

Based on the report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/American Heart Association Conference on Scientific Issues Related to Definition, however, there were six components of MS which were identified. These are (1) abdominal obesity, (2) atherogenic dyslipidemia, (3) raised blood pressure, (4) insulin resistance with or without glucose intolerance, (5) proinflammatory state, and (6) prothrombotic state[3].

Abdominal obesity[3]

This refers to the increased waistline circumference as described in the preceding.

Atherogenic dyslipidemia[3]

When a substance is considered as atherogenic, this means that it can be deposited along the internal lining of your   blood vessel wall. When this takes place, your blood vessels become inelastic and rigid that eventually your blood pressure increases. Thus, as much as possible, these substances (cholesterol and triglycerides) need to be at normal levels in your blood in most of the times.

In the cholesterol profile, the factor which is more important is the level of the so-called HDL-cholesterol which is otherwise known as the “goodcholesterol. This is considered as “good” because it is responsible for the reverse cholesterol transport whose main function is to carry allcholesterol molecules from the different organs of your body back to the liver for elimination. If this is low, more cholesterol stays in your peripheral circulation, promoting possible attachment in the internal lining of your blood vessels. This becomes an atherogenic factor which should be addressed at the soonest possible time.

Raised blood pressure[3]

This refers to the elevation of your blood pressure as described in the preceding. Have your blood pressure checked regularly. When you find out that it is elevated, you need to consult your medical doctor for proper medication(s). It has to be lowered as soon as possible so that complications will not set in.

Insulin resistance [3]

The substance responsible for the absorption of glucose in your cells is the protein known as insulin. If you are suffering from MS, glucose is no longer sensitive to the action of insulin. Thus, in spite of having enough concentration of insulin in your cells, glucose is not absorbed and therefore not used.

Proinflammatory state[3]

If you are obese and your C-reactive protein (CRP) is elevated,aside from having inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, it is greatly possible that you have MS. There are a number of causes of the CRP elevation, but obesity is one of the causes because excess adipose tissue releases inflammatory substances that will cause elevation of CRP[3].

Prothrombotic state[3]

When your plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 and your fibrinogen are elevated[3], then very likely you have MS. These are additional substances which indicate that some inflammatory substances are highly elevated in your body, promoting the development of cardiovascular diseases.

(To be continued)

References:

  1. Mayo Clinic, Diseases and Conditions, Metabolic Syndrome. http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/metabolic-syndrome/basics/definition/con-20027243
  2. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/More/MetabolicSyndrome/About-Metabolic-Syndrome_UCM_301920_Article.jsp#.VsxroH197IU
  3. NHLBI/AHA Conference Proceedings. Circ.ahajournals.org/content/109/3/433.full