What are strengthening physical exercises?(Part 6)

Muscle groups and their corresponding functions

Ankles[1,2]

The ankle refers to the joint where your lower leg and your foot are joined. Since the foot requires a number of movements—aside from flexion and extension—a number of muscles (more than 20) hold the two structures together. Largely, these muscles act as flexors and extensors that play a pivotal role in movements and balancing of your body. To provide stability and versatility in your movements, some of these muscles are so long that they are attached at a point as high as the back of your knee[1].

The muscles that greatly influence the movements of your foot are the following:

  • Soleus: This muscle is found at the back of your lower leg. It extends from the back of your knee to your heel. It is very much needed for your walking and standing. When you are falling forward, this muscle contracts so that your foot hits the ground, stabilizing you and maintaining your erect position[1].
  • Gastrocnemius: This is found at the back portion of your lower leg, and it runs over its entire length. It is connected at the back of your knee and to your heel. When this muscle contracts, your lower leg is pulled towards your upper leg, causing bending at your knees. More importantly, this muscle plays an active role when you walk because it extends your foot[1].
  • Other muscles: Other muscles that influence the movements of your foot are plantaris, abductor hallucis, tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum longus, fibularis longus, fibularistertius, andfibularis brevis[1].

Strengthening exercises for the ankle muscles using body weight

Ankle push[2]

You can sit down on the floor and then provide resistance to your foot with your hand as it moves downward, upward, inward, or outward—holding each movement for 10 seconds and doing it for 3 to 5 times [2].

 

 

Towel sweep[2]

Sit on a chair and then step on a towel with one of your feet and with the heel off the edge of the towel. Using solely your toes, move the towel outward, inward, and towards you with the heel planted and static on the ground. Do each movement 5 times with each foot[2].

Ankle bend exercises[2]

Sit on a chair. With your ankles and knees together, tie a rubber exercise band around your feet in front of the ankles. Press outward with your feet then relax. Do this 10 times. After this, cross your ankles and then tie your feet with the rubber exercise band. Using one of your feet, push to the outside while your knees and ankles are kept together. Relax and then shift to using the other foot. Do 10 times with each foot[2].

Arches[1,2]

When you look forarches, you are referring to the angles formed at the bottom of your feet by its bones and strengthened by its tendons, ligaments, and muscles. There are three: (1) the medial arch, (2) the lateral arch, and (3) the fundamental longitudinal arch. The arches are actually curves at the bottom of your feet, and they make your walking easier and less taxing for your body[1].

Strengthening exercise for the arches using body weight

Towel exercise[2]

Stand and place one of your feet over a towel. Curl your toes to put the towel under you, with your leg and your heel not moving at all. Keep on doing it until the towel is totally under you. Reverse the process by pushing the towel away from you. Do this for 2 to 3 times for each foot[2].

(To be continued)

References:

  1. http://www.healthline.com/human-body-maps/abdomen-muscles#seoBlock
  2. Glover B, Shepherd J, Glover SF. Strengthening. In: The Runner’s Handbook. 2nd revised ed. New York: Penguin Books USA Inc.; 1996:578-597.

What are strengthening physical exercises?(Part 5)

Muscle groups and their corresponding functions

Quadriceps [1,2]

Strengthening exercises for the quadriceps using body weight

Sitting leg extensions[2]

Sit on a chair or on the edge of a table. Extend your one leg and tighten it, holding your kneecap parallel to the floor. Tighten your muscles for 2 to 3 seconds in isometric contraction—wherein there is no movement at the joint but the muscle fibers are working or contracting. Complete 10 to 20 times. You can repeat the same procedure with the other leg. If you believe your legs have grown stronger, you can add a 2-pound ankle weight and do the physical exercise [2].

Squats[2]

Stand with your feet around one foot apart, and then slowly squat to one-fourth or one-third of the way down and hold for 2 or 3 seconds before slowly returning to the starting or standing position. Complete 10 to 20 times. Do not squat exceeding halfway down to avoid injury! To provide yourself with added protection, you can do chair squats wherein you can lower your buttocks slightly over the chair and proceed doing the full exercise as described in the preceding[2].

Buttocks[1,2]

The principal muscle in the buttocks is the gluteus maximus, and it is regarded as one of the strongest muscles in the human body. It is attached to the coccyx, otherwise known as tailbone, and to the nearby bones. It is responsible for the movement of the hip and the thigh. Specifically, it aids in standing up from a sitting position, climbing stairs, and in maintaining erect position[1]. Other muscles in the buttocks are gluteus minimus and medius[2].

Strengthening exercises for the buttocks using body weight

Butt raisers [2]

Lie on your back with your knees bent and your feet flat on the floor. With your heels serving as the fulcrum, raise you pelvis one inch off the floor and hold it for 10 seconds, release and relax. Do this exercise for 5 to 10 times [2].

Pelvic tilt[2]

Lie flat on the floor in supine position, with your knees bent and your feet flat on the floor. Simultaneously tighten your butt muscles and your abdominals while raising your pelvis from the floor. While raising your pelvis, press your lower back towards the floor. Hold contracted muscles for 3 to 10 seconds while exhaling. You can do this for 3 to 5 times [2].

Hips and groin[1,2]

The most prominent muscle in the groin is the gracilis. It is quite a long muscle because it extends from the pelvic bone up to the bone of the lower leg. Its main functionsare to assist in knee flexion and to adduct the legs. Adducting the legs means bringing them from the outside toward the center; hence, it means bringing the feet and legs together at the center. It is also responsible for stabilizing and rotating the knee inward. Aside from the gracilis, there are other important muscles in the groin. These include the pectineus, adductor brevis, adductor longus, and the adductor magnus[1].

Strengthening exercises for the hips and groin using body weight

 

Inside leg raises (for the adductors) [1,2]

Lie on your right side with your head resting on the outstretched right arm and your left arm aligned with your body. Flex your left leg at the knee and place the left lower leg in front of the right upper leg. Slowly raise your stretched right leg as high and as far as you can and then slowly returning to the starting position. Complete 2 or 3 sets of 10 with each leg. If you feel that your adductors have gained strength, you can add weight in your ankle to increase the resistance[2].

(To be continued)

References:

  1. http://www.healthline.com/human-body-maps/abdomen-muscles#seoBlock
  2. Glover B, Shepherd J, Glover SF. Strengthening. In: The Runner’s Handbook. 2nd revised ed. New York: Penguin Books USA Inc.; 1996:578-597.

What are strengthening physical exercises?(Part 4)

Muscle groups and their corresponding functions

Upper body[1,2]

When you mention upper body, you are referring mainly to the arms. Thus, the muscles in this region will be discussed, and the most important ones are: (1) biceps brachii, (2) triceps, (3) brachioradialis, (4) extensor carpi radialis longus, and (5) deltoid muscle. The biceps is very much attached to the humerus, which is the bone of the upper arm. With that position, it rotates the forearm and flexes the forearm at the elbow. The triceps, on the other hand, is located at the back of the upper arm, and it assists in straightening the whole arm. The brachioradialis covers parts of the upper and lower arms, and it is mainly responsible for flexing the forearm at the elbow. In addition, it helps in the rotation of the forearm both outwardly and inwardly[1].

The extensor carpi radialis longus is located near the brachioradialis, and it is one of the five major muscles responsible for moving the hand at the wrist in different directions. When you clench your fist, this muscle becomes visible as it rises below your skin. The deltoid is the main muscle at your shoulder, and it controls all movements arising from the shoulder joint[1].

Strengthening exercises for the muscles in the upper body using body weight

Push-ups [2]                               

Lie flat with your face against the floor. With the use of your arms, raise your body from the floor until your arms are fully extended. When your arms are fully extended, ensure that your hands are parallel,while your arms are perpendicular, to the floor. From an elevated position, go down to your starting point. Complete two or three sets of five, having breaks in between sets to perform other physical exercises. Gradually, increase your daily goal to sets of 20 or so with the right form [2].

Reverse push-ups [2]

Stand with your back facing a table or chair. Place your hands on the table or chair with your extended legs moved forward in front of you. Slowly lower your body towards the table or chair and with your legs slightly flexed at the knees and your heels serving as your fulcrum. After lowering your body as far as you can, you can return to your starting position. Do 10 to 20 times. To increase the difficulty of this exercise, you can select another support which is lower than a chair or table. A good suggestion is a bench. Before starting this exercise, however, ensure that your support is in good condition and stable so that you will not be injured. This specific exercise is intended for the triceps which are located at the back of the upper arms [2].

Quadriceps[1,2]

The quadriceps are group of four muscles located at the front of the thigh. These muscles are: (1) vastus lateralis, (2) vastus medialis, (3) vastus intermedius, and (4) rectus femoris. Each of the vastus muscles is attached to the femur, which is the primary bone of the upper leg, and is attached down under in the patella or the kneecap. The rectus femoris is also attached to the patella; however, in the higher portion, it is attached to the hip bone—and not to the femur[1].

As suggested by their location, the quadriceps are very important in extending the lower legs at the knees. In addition, these are used for walking, running, and other physical activities; hence, they are prone to injuries, such as strains, tears, and ruptures [1].

(To be continued)

References:

  1. http://www.healthline.com/human-body-maps/abdomen-muscles#seoBlock
  2. Glover B, Shepherd J, Glover SF. Strengthening. In: The Runner’s Handbook. 2nd revised ed. New York: Penguin Books USA Inc.; 1996:578-597.

What are strengthening physical exercises?(Part 3)

Muscle groups and their corresponding functions

Calf muscles [1,2]

When you are talking about the calf muscles, you are actually referring to: (1) the gastrocnemius, and (2) the soleus muscles. Both of them are located at the back of your lower legs, and play important role when you walk, run, jump, and stand at the balls of your feet. These two muscles are attached to your heel bone by the so-called Achilles tendon.When you overwork your Achilles tendon, you will have inflammation on it, and this is called tendinitis[1].

Strengthening exercises for the calf muscles using body weight

Toe raises[2]

Face the wall and place one hand against it to support you. Slowly raise your whole body on your toes then slowly return your heel to the floor. Perform two or three sets of 10 to 20 toe raises. In between, you can have a 1-minute rest. As your legs get stronger, you can hold additional weights in your hands or place barbell over your shoulders behind the neck to increase the resistance[2].

Hamstrings[1,2]

The hamstrings are muscles that occupy the back portion of your thigh. One of these is calledthe biceps femoris which is a two-headed muscle. One of its heads is attached to the ischiumwhich is the lower and back part of the hip bone and the other one is attached to the femur which is the main bone of your upper leg. The other hamstring muscles are the semitendinosus and the semimembranosus. Lumping the three muscles togetherinto one, their main actions are to flex the knee and extend the hip. In addition to these main functions, however, the biceps femoris is involved in the internal and external rotation of the legs [1].

Strengthening exercises for the hamstrings using body weight

Hamstring curls[2]

Stand in front of a table or any other object whose height is at the level of your thigh and which could serve as your support. Place your hands on the supporting table and bend backward your one leg at the knee, maintaining that your thigh is still aligned with your upper body. Slowly raise your foot towards your buttocks as far as you can and slowly return to the starting point. Finish two or three sets of 20 with each leg[2].

Back muscles[1,2]

The three muscles at the back are the following: (1) multifidus, (2)longissimus, and (3) spinalis.The multifidus muscle stabilizes and supports the spinal column. Thus, it provides stiffness to it[1].The longissimus muscles, on the other hand, flex the head and neck on the same side, and they extend the vertebral column [3]. Finally, the spinalis muscle extends and laterally bends the neck and the trunk [1].

Strengthening exercises for the back muscles using body weight

Back extensions[2]

Lie flat on yourfront abdomen with your hands under your shoulders as if you are about to do push-ups. Slowly raise your chest up using solely your back muscles and slightly assisted by your arms. As your chest goes up, exhale and pause at the top of the exercise. Go down slowly and inhale as you do it. Complete two or three sets of 10 [2].

Alternate extensions[2]

Lie flat on your front abdomen with your arms extended in front of you. Rest your forehead on a folded towel on the floor. Raise one of your arms simultaneously with the opposite leg. Maintain it for three seconds and then slowly lower it down to the starting position. Complete ten repetitions for each.

(To be continued)

References:

  1. http://www.healthline.com/human-body-maps/abdomen-muscles#seoBlock
  2. Glover B, Shepherd J, Glover SF. Strengthening. In: The Runner’s Handbook. 2nd revised ed. New York: Penguin Books USA Inc.; 1996:578-597.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Longissimus

What are strengthening physical exercises?(Part 2)

Muscle groups and their corresponding functions

Abdominals[1,2]

The external oblique muscles serve as the cover of the sides of the abdomen. In addition, it helps in the rotation of the trunk and the spine. Serving as further support to the abdominal wall, theinternal oblique muscles are located beneath the external oblique muscles; thus, they also serve as cover of the abdomen at its sides[2].

The internal oblique muscles help in forced respiration, and aid in raising the pressure inside the abdominal cavity. They also rotate and turn the trunk with assistance from other muscles. More importantly, they serve to counteract the actions of the diaphragm[2], resulting in coordinated fashion of regulating the volume of the chest cavity.

The transverse abdominis is the muscle in the side and front of the abdomen. It lies underneath the internal oblique muscles; therefore, it follows that it is the deepest muscle in the front and side of the abdomen. Its main function is to compress the ribs and the abdominal organs. In addition, it stabilizes the thorax and the pelvis. It plays a great role when a pregnant woman delivers her child[3], by pushing the child through and out in the pelvic canal.

Probably unknown to you, there is a back portion of the abdomen, and one of the most prominent muscles in this region is the latissimus dorsi. It is responsible for extending, adducting, and rotating the arms[2]—aside from covering the abdomen at the back.

Strengthening exercises for the abdominals using the body weight

Crunches (Modified sit-ups)[1]

Lie flat on the floor in a supine position, with knees bent and your hands placed over your chest. Slowly raise your head and your shoulders around six inches off the floor. Remain as it is for two seconds then return to the starting point.Exhale as you sit up and inhale as you come down. Do two to three sets of 10 to 20 crunches daily. These exercises are intended and good for your rectus abdominis[1].

Reverse sit-ups[1]

Lie flat on the floor in a supine position, with knees bent and your feet flat on the floor. Place your arms at your side and with the palms down.Keeping your knees still bent, bring your legs up followed by lifting your pelvis towards the chest. Exhale as you gradually lift your pelvis. You can do two to three sets of 10. This exercise is intended for the transverse abdominis muscle[1].

Pelvic tilt[1]

Lie flat on the floor in supine position, with your knees bent and your feet flat on the floor. Simultaneously tighten your butt muscles and your abdominals while raising your pelvis fromthe floor. While raising your pelvis, press your lower back towards the floor. Hold contracted muscles for three to ten seconds while exhaling. You can do this for three to five times[1].

Calf muscles [1]

The gastrocnemius muscle is found at the back portion of the lower leg, andit runs overits entire length. It is connected at the back of the knee and to the heel.When this muscle contracts, your lower leg is pulled towards the upper leg, causing bending at your knees. More importantly, this muscle plays an active role when you walk[2].

The other component of the calf muscles is the soleus. It is located at the back of the lower leg, in close proximity with thegastrocnemius. It is primarily used to push the ground when you walk. In addition, it is very important in dancing and running. To prevent you from falling forward, the soleus will contract to pull your feet against the ground, maintaining your upright posture[2].

(To be continued)

References:

  1. Glover B, Shepherd J, Glover SF. Strengthening. In: The Runner’s Handbook. 2nd revised ed. New York: Penguin Books USA Inc.; 1996:578-597.
  2. http://www.healthline.com/human-body-maps/abdomen-muscles#seoBlock
  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transverse_abdominal_muscle

What are strengthening physical exercises?(Part 1)

Definition

Strengthening physical exercises are movements that you need to do repeatedly in order to develop and improve the strength of a group of muscles. The groups of muscles are abdominals, ankles, arch, back, buttocks, calf muscles, hamstrings, hips/groin, quadriceps, shins, and upper body[1]. As to which group(s) of muscles you would like to develop depends on your purpose. If you would like to be a good runner, then the groups of muscles that you need to strengthen are the calves, hamstrings, and buttocks. If you would like to firm up your abdomen, then you strengthen your abdominals. If you would like to have firm and sturdy shoulders and chest, then strengthen your muscles in your upper body.

Means of doing strengthening exercises

Using body weight[1]

In this method of strengthening exercises, you do not use any gym equipment and gadgets. You use your own body to do them. Examples are modified sit-ups, reverse sit-ups, pelvic tilt, ankle push, towel sweep[1], and many more. This means that you can do these exercises at home, without even going to the gym.

Using free weights [1]

In contrast to the exercises using your body weight, you may need to report to the gym if you will use the free weights. Generally, there are two kinds of free weights that you can use: (1) handheld dumbbells, or (2) the weight plates on barbells[1]. The need for gym in these exercises is not solely due to the availability of these equipment; more importantly, there are personnel in the gym who could guide you on how to properly use these equipment.

Using machines[1]

Using body weight and free weights will not totally strengthen all of your muscles. In addition, you will use some machines which are intended to strengthen other sets of muscles. Examples of these machines are the biceps curl machine, triceps machine, pull-down machine[1], and many others. When you visit the gym for the first time, you can look around and familiarize yourself with these machines. Each machine has its own use and purpose. Use it (them) if it (they) is (are) what you need. Thus, before using any machine in the gym, consult any fitness adviser around so that you could be guided accordingly.

Muscle groups and their corresponding functions

Abdominals[1,2]

The abdominalsare muscles located in the front section of your abdomen. Their function is to provide you with postural support, protect your internal organs located in the abdomen and pelvic area, and to allow you to perform some movements, such as rotating the spine, bending, breathing, and defecating. The most prominent muscles are the rectus abdominis, external oblique muscles, internal oblique musclesand the latissimus dorsi.The rectus abdominis runs downward from the sternumdown to the pelvic bone, and the external oblique muscles are located at its sides, running downward in oblique direction—hence, the word external oblique. Beneath the external oblique muscles are the internal oblique muscles. Covering the back is the latissimus dorsi muscle[2].POWERTEC

Figure 1.0.Diagrammatic illustration showing the major muscles in the front abdomen.

The rectus abdominis is activated when you do crunches because it is responsible for pulling the rib and the pelvis toward each other. In addition, it curves the back. In terms of bodily functions, it is very important during the delivery of your child, for bowel movements, and for coughing. When you have a bulging belly, the accumulated fat is lying over your rectus abdominis. Thus, when you do periodic physical exercises for the abdominals, the fats will be burned, and you will see the exposed rectus abdominis as a six-pack muscle[2].

References:

  1. Glover B, Shepherd J, Glover SF. Strengthening. In: The Runner’s Handbook. 2nd revised ed. New York: Penguin Books USA Inc.; 1996:578-597.
  2. http://www.healthline.com/human-body-maps/abdomen-muscles#seoBlock

Symptoms that could prevent you from doing physical exercises (2)

The Symptoms

Fast heart rate

You will surely know when your heart rate is faster than normal. Others call this sudden increase in heart rate as palpitation, and lately this has been used to refer to this medical situation. If you have palpitation—whether taking place so suddenly or has been there for some time—you need to have medical consultation because, if you do not, your heart will suffer. In some people, palpitation takes place when they have taken a cup—or more—of coffee. When this takes place, all you have to do is wait until the effect of caffeine which is so preponderant in your coffee wanes, and your heart rate returns to normal. However, if your heart rate has been so fast for some time compared to your previous ones, then you need to see a medical doctor because you might have a problem in your thyroid gland, and you will need medication(s) to control it. If your heart rate is fast, refrain from having physical exercises because it will increase all the more if you do. Return to having physical exercises only once your heart rate is restored to normal.

Swelling of the legs

If you have swollen legs, it could mean a lot of things. Foremost, it is possible that you have kidney or heartdisease. Thus, you need to consult a medical doctor who will work you up and find your problem. By doing physical examinations, your medical doctor could immediately determine if you have a heart disease. More often than not, if you have swollen legs and you have a history of high blood pressure, your heart has been enlarged, and it is beginning to fail. In another saying, you are starting to have heart failure. Therefore, you are not allowed to have physical exercises for the moment, and you will need clearance from your medical doctor before you can return to the gym.

The other possibility is you have been suffering from kidney disease. Hence, your medical doctor will request you to undergo a urine test which is popularly known as urinalysis. Urinalysis is a very simple test, and it is very cheap. However, your medical doctor could derive a lot of information from it. If your problem is a simple infection, you will be prescribed with the most appropriate antibiotic(s), and you can return to the gym after controlling the infection. In some instances, however, the problem is irreversible or untreatable. In such case, you will be barred from returning to the gym, especially if there is difficulty in controlling your blood pressure.

Difficulty in sleeping

In some people, difficulty in sleeping is being experienced. Medically, this is known as insomnia. If you are one of them, then you need to consult a medical doctor because lack of sleep could cause accident while you are doing work out in the gym. There are a number of possibilities to consider if you have insomnia. Firstly, you might have anemia—a blood disorder wherein the number of your red blood cells is low. If you have anemia, your heart rate is usually faster than normal; this prevents you from falling asleep. Secondly, you might have a problem in your thyroid gland which could be hyperthyroidism. If you have been suffering from hyperthyroidism, your heart has been being overworked, aside from the fact that you have been experiencing insomnia. Hence, if you have been suffering from insomnia, consult a medical doctor at once so that you could be prescribed with the necessary medication(s). Do not insist on having your physical exercises, lest you will meet accident or aggravate your medical condition.

Symptoms that could prevent you from doing physical exercises(1)

The Symptoms

Back pain

If you have been experiencing back pain for the last few months, accompanied by some urinary disturbances, such as more frequent urination and low abdominal discomfort, it is possible that you have been suffering from urinary tract infection (UTI). You need to consult a medical doctor, and, more often than not, he will request you to have examination of the urine, otherwise known as urinalysis. If it turns out that you haveUTI, then you will be prescribed with the most appropriate antibiotic(s).

If your back pain, however, is acute—that is, it happened so suddenly—then you need to consider compression of your spinal nerves. This consideration is most probable if you have a history of trauma or injury at the back. However, even if there was no trauma, you need to factor in spinal nerve(s) injury, and you need to consult a medical doctor who is either a general practitioner, neurologist, or rehabilitation medical doctor. If you have spinal nerve(s) injury, and you insisted on having your physical exercises, it is possible that you will injure yourself all the more, and you will aggravate your medical problem. Hence, prior to totally ruling out the possibility of spinal nerve(s) injury, you need to refrain from having physical exercises.

If it is confirmed that you have spinal nerve(s) injury, resulting from compression, the basic management is for you to have bed rest for at least seven days. It could be longer, depending on the severity of your medical problem. In addition, you will have sessions under the rehabilitation medicine department, wherein traction and physical therapy will be administered to you. You will be asked to report for physical therapy for around ten sessions—each session lasting for at least one hour. You will be taught how to perform the different physical therapies, and you will continue doing them at home.

Joint pain

If you have been experiencingjoint pain—whether acute or chronic—you need to refrain from having physical exercises. You need to consult a medical doctor first to find out what is your problem, and you will be prescribed with the necessary medications. If the pain is gone, then you can resume your physical exercises. If you insist to do your physical exercises, in spite of your joint pain, then you will aggravate your problem, and it will be harder to treat it.

Sudden weakness of one or more extremities

Sudden weakness of one or more extremities is a symptom that cannot be taken for granted. It could be a symptom of stroke (bleeding in the brain), especially if you have a history of hypertension and you have been taking medications for it—and worse, if you have not been taking medications in spite of knowing that you have hypertension. Immediately, consult a medical doctor so that your medical problem could be diagnosed at once. Refrain from doing your physical exercises because, if you do, you might aggravate your medical condition. Much worse, you will die from it.

Getting tired so easily

If you have been well and good, then suddenly in the last few days you have been experiencing easy fatigability or getting tired so easily, it is possible that your blood pressure has risen. Refrain from doing your physical exercises. Instead, consult a medical doctor, and have your blood pressure checked. If your blood pressure is higher than normal, then your medical doctor will surely prescribe you with the right medications. Take them regularly and faithfully! Once your blood pressure is controlled, you can return to the gym, and resume your workouts.

                                 (To be continued)

 

Definition of, and lifestyle intervention measures for, prediabetes

Definition

Prediabetes is defined as a medical condition wherein your fasting blood sugar is over the normal values, but you are not yetclassified asdiabetic[1]. It is therefore a stage wherein you are about to enter the population of diabetic patients. While it is true that you are not yet adiabetic, this is the right time to implement some intervention measures so that your medical condition will not get worse and will not be transformed into Type 2 diabetes mellitus, when the management is more complicated and more expensive.

To find out if you are a prediabetic or not, you can request your medical doctor to prepare for you a laboratory order for blood chemistry examination, wherein fasting blood sugar (FBS) is one of the tests. If the result of your FBS is between 70-105 mg/dl, then you have normal values. If the value is equal to or greater than 126 mg/dl, then you might have diabetes mellitus. If the value lies between 105 and 125 mg/dl, then you are a prediabetic.If you are a prediabetic, you can do a number of things so that your condition will not get worse—if not lowering your fasting blood sugar to normal level.

Lifestyle intervention measures

Engage in regular physical exercisesand burn your excess abdominal fat[1]

If your waist circumference is 35 inches or longer if you are a woman or 40 inches or longer if you are a man, it is highly probable that you have abdominal fat which needs to be shed off. (Consult Powertec 112, 113, 114, 115). You need to do some abdominal exercises and regular walking. If you would like to do some other forms of physical exercises that you enjoy, then do them! For as long as you can afford to do a particular physical exercise, you are not restricted to do it because as a prediabetic you really need to have regular and periodic physical exercises. By doing this, you will burn your excess abdominal fatand you will increase the competence of your insulin—a substance needed by your cells to pick up your sugar in the blood.

 

 

Reduce your weight if you are overweight[1]

If you are overweight, then you need to do some dietary and physical exercises programs that will lower your weight. Consult Powertec 20, 21, 22on how to implement these programs. Being overweight predisposes you to acquire Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Reduce your fat intake[2]

If you are a prediabetic, you need to have dietary modification which includes reduction in yourfat intake. As much as possible, yourfat intake is composed mainly of the unsaturated fatty acids which include both the monounsaturated and polyunsaturatedones. (Consult Powertec 63). You can take some amount of saturated fatty acids, though, because you also need them to maintain your health.

Increase fiber in your diet[2]

If you are overweightand prediabetic, it is recommended thatyou increase the amount of fibers in your diet. Foods rich in fibers are apples, peaches, plums, prunes, bananas, oats, barley, dried peas, beans, lentils, vegetables, brown rice, nuts, and seeds. (Consult Powertec153). If the amount of fibers in your diet is relatively significant, unknowingly, you will reduce the number of calories that you will take in every meal, thereby helping in your weight reduction.

Avoid simple carbohydrates

You need to avoid simple carbohydrates, such as candies, chocolates, cakes, honey, soft drinks, ice cream, and table sugar. Avoid putting sugar in your coffee. If you are very fond of fruits, avoid the sweet ones, such as grapes, mangoes, and pineapple. If you take a lot of simple carbohydrates, your blood sugar will immediately rise up.

 

References:

  1. http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/prediabetes/basics/definition/con-

20024420

  1. Pratley RE, Matfin G. Pre-diabetes: clinical relevance and therapeutic approach. British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Diseases. 2007;7(3):120-129.

http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/562039_8

The relationship between saturated fatty acids and cholesterol

Medical importance of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol

In the development of diseases of the heart and blood vessels, otherwise known as cardiovascularproblems, two substances take the center stage. These are: (1) saturated fatty acids, and (2) cholesterol. Their relationship on how they could possiblywreak havoc toyourcardiovascular system will be examined in this article.

Unhealthy alliance between the saturated fatty acids and cholesterol

Biochemically, saturated fatty acids promote the formation of the so-called very lowdensity lipoproteins (VLDLs) which containrelatively more cholesterol, and they are used by the body at slower rate than the bigger lipoproteins [1]. Since theVLDLsare not immediately used by the body, the cholesterol molecules that they are carrying willbe depositedin the peripheral tissues instead, leading eventually to diseases in the heart and blood vessels.

The strongest link between saturated fatty acid and cholesterol has been established by some epidemiological studies wherein it was found out that high intake of saturated fatty acids led to increased level of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol[2]which is considered as “bad” because it brings and deposits cholesterol in the peripheral tissues, such as the muscles and blood vessels—among other organs.

To avoid the unhealthy effects of saturated fatty acids, therefore, it is recommended that they should be substituted with unsaturated fatty acids in the diet[1]. In Powertec (63), concreteexamples of the different sources of each type of fatty acid were written; all you have to do is to take more of the foods containingunsaturated fatty acids and less of the saturated ones.

It has to be emphasized, however, that total and absolute removal of saturated fatty acids from the diet is not recommended because if that is resorted to, you may experience some forms of chronic diseases which could be due to lack of intake of saturated fatty acids. There are different kinds of saturated fatty acids, and until now there are still questions on how each one contributes to the maintenance of your health. It is unwise, therefore, that you completely remove them from your diet[2].

 

Recommended apportionment of your food groups

To meet your daily energy and nutritional requirements—and thus reducing your risk of developing chronic deficiency disorders—the National Academies Institute of Medicine recommends the following breakdown of apportioning the different food groups as sources of your energy: 45-65% of your calories must come from carbohydrates, 20-35% from fat, and 10-35% from protein[2].

To give you hint on how you could implement the aforestated recommendation, it is necessary and highly recommended that you undergo blood chemistry examination, complete blood count, and urinalysis. You may consult your medical doctor, and request him to prepare laboratory order for you. Submit this order to any certified medical laboratory so that the tests will be performed. Upon receiving the results, you go back to your medical doctor for his prescriptions and/or advise.

Nutritionally, however, if the level(s) of your cholesterol and/or triglycerides is/are high, then limit your fat intake to 20%, instead of the maximum recommended value of 35%. In addition, as much as possible, that 20% of fat should consist mainly of the unsaturated fats—which could be in the form of monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats {Consult Powertec (63)}.

If the level(s) of your cholesterol and/or triglycerides are normal, your blood pressure is normal, and your liver enzymes (SGPT and SGOT) are normal, you can afford to take dietary fat at a maximum level of 35%.To help you prepare your diet, you can consult a certified nutritionist-dietitian. He/she can help you select the proper kind and quantity of foods that you need to take to meet the 20% or 35% of fat in your diet.

 

References:

  1. Murray, Robert K., Daryl K. Granner, Peter A. Mayes, and Victor W. Rodwell. Harper’s Biochemistry. Appleton and Lange: Stamford, Connecticut, 2000.
  2. Bruce J, Dillard, CJ. Saturated fats: what dietary intake? The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. September 2004;80(3):550-559. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/80/3/550.full#sec-17.